Perfectionism and PERMA: The benefits of other-oriented perfectionism
Keywords:perfectionism, other-oriented perfectionism, flourishing, wellbeing, PERMA, Positive Psychology
The two-factor theory of perfectionism differentiates between positive and negative forms, yet some researchers still argue that perfectionism, as a whole, is detrimental to wellbeing. To this end, the present study investigated the relationship between the tripartite model of perfectionism and the PERMA model of wellbeing, with specific attention given to the relationship each form of perfectionism had with each element of wellbeing. Ninety-two participants (M age = 24.99) completed online self-report measures of perfectionism (self-oriented, other-oriented, and socially prescribed) and PERMA (positive emotion, engagement, relationships, meaning and accomplishment). Results showed that perfectionism accounted for a substantial amount of variance in all elements of wellbeing. A series of multiple regressions showed that socially prescribed perfectionism negatively predicted all PERMA elements. Self-oriented perfectionism positively predicted positive emotion, engagement, meaning and accomplishment. Other-oriented perfectionism positively predicted meaning and accomplishment. As for overall wellbeing, socially prescribed perfectionism was a negative predictor, whereas self-oriented and other-oriented perfectionism were positive predictors. The findings indicate that self-oriented perfectionism is an adaptive form of perfectionism conducive to flourishing, whereas socially prescribed perfectionism is a maladaptive form which undermines it. As for other-oriented perfectionism, the findings indicate it is an adaptive form and challenge the view that this “dark” form of perfectionism cannot enhance wellbeing.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. The license prevents others from using the work for profit without the express consent of the author(s). The license also prevents the creation of derivative works without the express consent of the author(s). Note that derivative works are very similar in nature to the original. Merely quoting (and appropriately referencing) a passage of a work is not making a derivative of it.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).